1962 – 1990

Armed Resistance & Mass Mobilisation

Trevor Huddleston and Nelson Mandela

From right to left Adelade Tambo, Nelson Mandela, Winnie Mandela and Rev. Trevor Huddleston. Rev. Trevor Huddleston is one of the internationalists who spoke openly about the life of Black people and their living conditions under the apartheid government. He is amongst the Isitwalandwe - the highest award the ANC gives to courageous men and women who champion the cause of the South African oppressed people.

Celebrations of the release of Nelson Mandela

ANC women cellebrating the releaase of Nelson Mandela.

Stop killing our people

Under the apartheid government many families lost their loved ones because of the heavy hand of the state against anti-apartheid persons.

Rivonia Treason Trialists released

A demonstration welcoming back the recently released Rivonia Treason Trialists on their visit to Tanzania.

Francis Meli, Alfred Nzo and Jackie Selebi in China

Francis Meli, an unidentified woman, Alfred Nzo and Jackie Selebi in China. In the 1980s.

Walter Sisulu

The release of the Rivonia Treason Trialists was a mojor victory for the African National Congress in its fight for the release of all political prisoners. Wilton Mkwayi, Ahmed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu, Raymond Mhlaba, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki,Denis Goldberg and later Nelson Mandela and the unbanning of the all political formations created the atmosphere for negotiated political settlement with the apartheid government. In the main picture is of Walter Sisulu.

Children learn at SOMAFCO

Children learn at SOMAFCO (Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College). The college was an ANC school set up for ANC exiles in Tanzania to equip South Africans that were becoming aware of the poor standard of education they were receiving under apartheid. The building of the school started in 1977 and opened in 1978 as a response to the influx of young South Africans to exile. Many had been part of the uprisings in South Africa in 1976. The objective of the college was to create a political school that would prepare cadres to serve the national struggle of the people of South Africa. The settlement was not simply an educational institution but included a clinic, a daycare centre, a clothing factory, and a worming farm.

SOMAFCO primary school in Tanzania

Students on bicycles at SOMAFCO Primary school in Tanzania.

SOMAFCO classes

Primary education class in SOMAFCO. Late 1980s

Congress of South African Trade Unions

The formation of COSATU was a victory for Black workers. Its emergence played a vital role in the struggle for a democratic South Africa.

State of Emergency

During the apartheid years many anti-liberation movement laws were passed especially during the PW Botha years.

Women’s Day celebration at SOMAFCO

This is a Women's Day celebration during the exile years in Tanzania.

International community support

People of the international community were very supportive during the exile years. They welcomed the exiled South Africans with open arms and embraced them as their brothers and sisters.

Political Campaign

The name of Mandela in the ANC became a symbol of resistance for all those who suffered under the apartheid regime.

Alfred Nzo in China

A delegation to China including Alfred Nzo, Francis Meli, and Jacki Selebi.


A poster in the wake of the Maseru Massacre reads: "The Certainty of their defeat drives them to massacre. The certainty of our victory grows out of mobilisation."

Detention Action Committee

During the apartheid years civil societies were formed to represent various groups including the rights of prisoners.

High school at SOMAFCO

High School Education Class in SOMAFCO. Late 1980s

Before Dawn: Culture in another South Africa

The highlights of the "Culture in another South Africa" Conference held in Amsterdam in December 1987.

Pallo Jordan

During and after the unbanning of the ANC in 1990 comrade Pallo Jordan was the head of the Department of Information and Publicity. In 1994 after the democratic elections of South Africa he served in the cabinet of President Mandela. He led the first Ministry of Arts and Culture in the post apartheid government. Here he is giving the keynote address at the "Culture in Another South Africa" Conference in Amsterdam, Netherlands, December 1987.